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Pakistan, 1977–1997: Islamization and Restoration of State Power

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

in The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the making of State Power.

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144260
eISBN:
9780199833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144260.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The Zia ul‐Haq regime adopted state‐led Islamization to shore up waning state power. It adopted aspects of Islamist ideology to reshape the country's judicial and political structures. This strategy ... More


‘Hey, Afghani!’ Identity Contentions among Iranians and Afghan Refugees

Zuzanna Olszewska

in Dispossession and Displacement: Forced Migration in the Middle East and North Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264591
eISBN:
9780191734397
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264591.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

This chapter addresses issues of identity and rootlessness as expressed through poetry. It focuses in on the second generation of Afghan refugees who were portrayed as a confused generation subjected ... More


Pakistan: Refugee History and Policies of Pakistan: An Afghan Case Study

Shireen S. Issa, Gail Desmond, and Fariyal Ross

in Immigration Worldwide: Policies, Practices, and Trends

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195388138
eISBN:
9780199863440
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388138.003.0012
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy, Communities and Organizations

In Pakistan, the only law pertaining to immigrants is the Foreigners Order of 1951 (amended in 2000). All immigrants or refugees in Pakistan, unless otherwise determined, are therefore considered ... More


Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History

Thomas Barfield

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145686
eISBN:
9781400834532
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145686.001.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This book traces the historic struggles and the changing nature of political authority in this volatile region of the world—Afghanistan—from the Mughal Empire in the sixteenth century to the Taliban ... More


Introduction

Thomas Barfield

in Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145686
eISBN:
9781400834532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145686.003.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This introductory chapter discusses an anthropological approach to examining political order in Afghanistan. Rather than casting the nation in the context of war and conquerors, this chapter views ... More


People and Places

Thomas Barfield

in Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145686
eISBN:
9781400834532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145686.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter provides a basic outline of Afghanistan's land and peoples. It describes how the various tribal and ethnic groups of Afghanistan work, because they have all played key roles in ... More


Afghanistan Enters the Twenty-first Century

Thomas Barfield

in Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145686
eISBN:
9781400834532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145686.003.0006
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter looks at the first decade of the twenty-first century in Afghanistan. As the twentieth century ended, ever-larger numbers of Afghans had become caught up in political and military ... More


Some Conclusions

Thomas Barfield

in Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145686
eISBN:
9781400834532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145686.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter explains that Afghanistan's problems during the early twenty-first century can best be understood by examining where they fit past patterns and where they break from them. The prospects ... More


Conversion to Christianity: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives on a Great Transformation

Robert Hefner (ed.)

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520078352
eISBN:
9780520912564
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520078352.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Anthropology, Religion

Reaching beyond sensational headlines, this book offers a three-dimensional portrait of Afghan women. In a series of wide-ranging, deeply reflective chapters, scholars, humanitarian workers, ... More


Epilogue: Dispossession and Forced Migration in the Twenty-first-century Middle East and North Africa: The Way Forward

Dawn Chatty

in Dispossession and Displacement: Forced Migration in the Middle East and North Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264591
eISBN:
9780191734397
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264591.003.0013
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

The chapters presented in this volume have covered a wide range of case studies; the Sahrawi refugees in Algeria and Spain; the Palestinian refugees in the West Bank and Gaza; the Turkish settlers in ... More


The Transnational Turn in Migration Studies and the Afghan Social Networks

Alessandro Monsutti

in Dispossession and Displacement: Forced Migration in the Middle East and North Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264591
eISBN:
9780191734397
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264591.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

Since the 1980s, migration has undergone various developments that have changed the understanding of the concept of migration. The former understanding of migration as the integration of the migrant ... More


From Mohajer to Hamwatan: The Reintegration Experiences of Second generation Afghans Returning from Pakistan and Iran

Mamiko Saito and Paula Kantor

in Dispossession and Displacement: Forced Migration in the Middle East and North Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264591
eISBN:
9780191734397
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264591.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

In addition to the traumatic and post-traumatic effects migration has on young refugees, prolonged displacement poses a greater effect. It affects the young refugees’ perception of their selves, ... More


Repatriation and Reconstruction: Afghan Youth as a ‘Burnt Generation’ in Post-conflict Return

Sarah Kamal

in Dispossession and Displacement: Forced Migration in the Middle East and North Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264591
eISBN:
9780191734397
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264591.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

Voluntary repatriation has been framed as the optimal and durable solution in internal politics and legal frameworks since the 1980s. While still generally put into practice as the solution of ... More


Tajikistan: The Rise of a Narco-State 1

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter traces the rise of Tajikistan as a narco-state. It explains that until the mid 1990s, heroin was virtually unknown in the country and other opiates were not major sources of concern; ... More


Afghanistan: The Mission Determines the Coalition

Sarah E. Kreps

in Coalitions of Convenience: United States Military Interventions after the Cold War

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199753796
eISBN:
9780199827152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753796.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter begins by discussing the US military response to 9/11, tracing how the United States largely eschewed offers of allied assistance and intervened in Afghanistan with limited support from ... More


Contested Terrain: Reflections with Afghan Women Leaders

Sally L. Kitch

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038709
eISBN:
9780252096648
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038709.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

This book explores the crisis in contemporary Afghan women's lives by focusing on two remarkable Afghan professional women working on behalf of their Afghan sisters. The book's compelling narrative ... More


Anglo-Afghan Wars and State Building in Afghanistan

Thomas Barfield

in Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145686
eISBN:
9781400834532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145686.003.0004
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter examines the erosion of traditional elite authority and new models of modern state building in the nineteenth century. The Anglo-Afghan wars were the crucibles that transformed the ... More


Afghanistan in the Twentieth Century: State and Society in Conflict

Thomas Barfield

in Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145686
eISBN:
9781400834532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145686.003.0005
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter analyzes the fate of Afghan rulers and their regimes in the twentieth century. Some were more successful than others, but one thing they had in common was unexpected ends to their ... More


Rereading Alha Singh: Rebel, Raja, and Sikh Sardar

Purnima Dhavan

in When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199756551
eISBN:
9780199918881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756551.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Sikhism

Majha and Malwa, two important regions in Panjab, had very different historical trajectories. The disciplining power of the Khalsa bands was more limited in Malwa. Alha Singh and other Malwa chiefs ... More


Tribe, Diaspora, and Sainthood in Indo-Afghan History

Nile Green

in Making Space: Sufis and Settlers in Early Modern India

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198077961
eISBN:
9780199080991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198077961.003.0017
Subject:
History, Indian History

This chapter examines the migration of large numbers of Afghans into India/Pakistan during the medieval and early modern periods. By drawing on a large number of Persian histories of the Afghans ... More


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