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Internalization: Empirical Evidence

Pol Antràs

in Global Production: Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691168272
eISBN:
9781400873746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691168272.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter describes how the internalization theories discussed in the previous chapters can be taken to the data. The empirical literature on this topic is still budding and has yet to provide ... More


Socialization

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

in A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151250
eISBN:
9781400838837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151250.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter examines socialization and the process by which social norms become internalized, how this capacity for internalization could have evolved, and why the norms internalized tend to be ... More


Social Emotions

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

in A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151250
eISBN:
9781400838837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151250.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter examines the role of social emotions such as guilt and shame in supporting human cooperation, and how these could have evolved. It first models the process by which an emotion such as ... More


The Transaction-Cost Approach

Pol Antràs

in Global Production: Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691168272
eISBN:
9781400873746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691168272.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter develops a transaction-cost model of the internalization decision of multinational firms. A key organizational decision of firms is the extent of control that firms choose to exert over ... More


The Property-Rights Approach

Pol Antràs

in Global Production: Firms, Contracts, and Trade Structure

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691168272
eISBN:
9781400873746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691168272.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter turns to the property-rights theory of the firm, which arguably constitutes the most compelling and influential theory of the firm explaining in a unified framework both the benefits as ... More


Theories of the Multinational Enterprise

Jean‐François Hennart

in Oxford Handbook of International Business

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241828
eISBN:
9780191596834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241821.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

A critical survey is presented of some of the theories that have been used to explain why multinational enterprises (MNEs) exist, with special emphasis on the transaction costs/internalization ... More


The Nature of the Firm

Mark Casson

in Information and Organization: A New Perspective on the Theory of the Firm

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297802
eISBN:
9780191596063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297807.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Information processing is specialized in particular types of institution. The firm is a specialized information processor. Firms are created on the initiative of entrepreneurs, who establish them as ... More


Conclusion

Geoffrey Jones

in Merchants to Multinationals: British Trading Companies in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199249992
eISBN:
9780191596483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199249997.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

The conclusion highlights the importance of trading companies as large components of British foreign direct investment before 1914, and which continued to renew and ‘re‐invent’ themselves until the ... More


A Systems View of International Production

Mark Casson

in Enterprise and Competitiveness: A Systems View of International Business

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198289579
eISBN:
9780191684746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198289579.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

The production frontier shows the alternative combinations of outputs that can be efficiently derived from a given set of inputs or factor endowments. Production, as presented in economics, is made ... More


Joint Ventures

Mark Casson

in Enterprise and Competitiveness: A Systems View of International Business

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198289579
eISBN:
9780191684746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198289579.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Joint ventures (JVs) serve as a means for staggered divestment or acquisition because they lessen the chances of loss by diverging firms and minimize risk by acquiring firms. JVs involve contractual ... More


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