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Introduction: The State of France in 1786: Illusion and Reality

John Hardman

in Overture to Revolution: The 1787 Assembly of Notables and the Crisis of France's Old Regime

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585779
eISBN:
9780191595325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585779.003.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

The Introduction analyses the component parts of old regime France in 1786, the last year it functioned normally with the double aim of showing how it worked and why it was beginning to break down; ... More


The Notables' Demand for Institutional Checks

John Hardman

in Overture to Revolution: The 1787 Assembly of Notables and the Crisis of France's Old Regime

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585779
eISBN:
9780191595325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585779.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

With the fall of Calonne, the Notables moved from defence to attack. Taking it as given that Calonne had squandered millions, they sought institutional restraints on the king to prevent the ... More


Francs, Banks, and Gold: Britain and the Swiss Financial Market

NEVILLE WYLIE

in Britain, Switzerland, and the Second World War

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206903
eISBN:
9780191717338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206903.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, European Modern History

This chapter examines British and U.S. efforts to put a stop to Swiss purchases of German gold and limit the financial and technical support given to its enemies by the Swiss banking sector. In both ... More


The Berlin Press, 1918–32

Bernhard Fulda

in Press and Politics in the Weimar Republic

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199547784
eISBN:
9780191720079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547784.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The chapter provides an overview of newspaper publishing in this period, and surveys contemporary perceptions of press influence. What newspapers did people really read, why did they read them, and ... More


The King, His Ministers, and the Direction of Financial Policy

Guy Rowlands

in The Financial Decline of a Great Power: War, Influence, and Money in Louis XIV's France

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199585076
eISBN:
9780191744600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585076.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Economic History

This chapter looks at the men at the top of the French central government who managed the royal finances that in turn supported the royal armies. Louis XIV himself exercised a general oversight but ... More


Liberalism and Municipal Finance

Jan Palmowski

in Urban Liberalism in Imperial Germany: Frankfurt Am Main, 1866–1914

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198207504
eISBN:
9780191677700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207504.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter deals with the subject most indicative of liberal assumptions about politics in general, and about the nature and role of the state in particular—public finance. Underlying the financial ... More


Guns or Butter? Living Standards, Finance, and Labour in Germany, 1939–1942

R. J. Overy

in War and Economy in the Third Reich

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198202905
eISBN:
9780191675584
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198202905.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Economic History

At the end of World War II the United States Strategic Bombing Survey uncovered what appeared to be a remarkable contradiction. Germany, the country of totalitarian politics and massive rearmament, ... More


Youth Unemployment and Policies towards Unemployed Youth, 1918–1933

Elizabeth Harvey

in Youth and the Welfare State in Weimar Germany

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198204145
eISBN:
9780191676123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204145.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Social History

Unemployment was a key issue for Weimar governments in terms of their policies towards youth. Youth unemployment reached high levels in 1918–19 and again in 1923–1924. A wide range of training, ... More


Reconstructing the Bourgeois Order, 1922–1929

MARK MAZOWER

in Greece and the Inter-War Economic Crisis

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198202059
eISBN:
9780191675126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198202059.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Economic History

This chapter charts how the slow process of development and recovery took place as Greece was reintegrated within an open trading and monetary international order. Topics discussed include land ... More


Left Liberals in National Politics, 1907–1912

Alastair P. Thompson

in Left Liberals, the State, and Popular Politics in Wilhelmine Germany

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205432
eISBN:
9780191676635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205432.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

How did the government and left liberals, after more than two decades of dispute focused on ‘national’ issues, come to be fighting a nationalistic Reichstag election campaign on the same side in ... More


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