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Altruism

Stephen Stich, John M. Doris, and Erica Roedder

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter focuses on an issue that has vexed philosophers since Plato: is genuinely altruistic behavior possible, or is all human behavior ultimately selfish? It begins in Section 2 with a brief ... More


Rethinking Rationality: From Bleak Implications to Darwinian Modules

Richard Samuels, Stephen Stich, and Patrice D. Tremoulet

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

There is a venerable philosophical tradition that views human beings as intrinsically rational. But studies have shown that even under ordinary circumstances where fatigue, drugs, and strong emotions ... More


Ending the Rationality Wars: How to Make Disputes About Human Rationality Disappear

Richard Samuels, Stephen Stich, and Michael Bishop

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter argues that much of the dispute between evolutionary psychologists and those in the heuristics and biases tradition is itself an illusion. The fireworks generated by each side focusing ... More


CLARIFICATIONS AND OBJECTIONS

William Talbott

in Which Rights Should Be Universal?

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195173475
eISBN:
9780199835331
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195173473.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In this chapter, Talbott responds to four main objections: (1) Rorty’s defense of Humean moral antirealism, the view that the development of human rights norms is a progress of sentiment, not reason; ... More


Ecological Intelligence

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Human color vision is adapted to the spectral properties of natural sunlight. More generally, the perceptual system has been shaped by the environment in which human ancestors evolved, the ... More


Evolutionary Naturalism and the Fear of Religion

Thomas Nagel

in The Last Word

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195149838
eISBN:
9780199872206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195149831.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Rationalism bears a closer association with religion than empiricism does; the former offers a conception of the world that links the deepest truths of nature to the deepest thoughts of the human ... More


Consciousness

Thomas Nagel

in Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199919758
eISBN:
9780199980369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199919758.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the concept of consciousness, which is the most evident barrier to a comprehensive naturalism that relies only on resources of physical science. It reveals that the existence ... More


Cognition

Thomas Nagel

in Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199919758
eISBN:
9780199980369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199919758.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines another type of antireductionist argument and its consequences. It first identifies the problem concerning mental functions such as reasoning, thought, and evaluation that are ... More


When Does Psychology Drive Culture?

Olivier Morin

in Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794393
eISBN:
9780199919338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794393.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

Naturalistic approaches to culture face an adjustment problem: many entities commonly found in the social sciences (traditions, institutions, social norms, etc.) do not seem to have any plausible ... More


Evolutionary Religious Studies: A Beginner's Guide

David Sloan Wilson and William Scott Green

in Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794393
eISBN:
9780199919338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794393.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

Evolutionary theory includes a number of major hypotheses that can be applied to the study of all traits, including the traits associated with religion. Although evolutionists agree about the general ... More


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