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Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Jaap Goudsmit

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

Rarely have humans been as threatened by viruses as they are today. It almost seems as if a virus invasion is taking place. Viruses have lately been coming out of nowhere and appearing in the ... More


Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Graham Bell

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Adaptation is caused by selection continually winnowing the genetic variation created by mutation. In the last ten years, our knowledge of how selection operates on populations in the field and in ... More


Mangrove trees and their environment

Peter Hogarth

in The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568704
eISBN:
9780191717536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568704.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter discusses how mangrove trees adapt to their environment. Topics covered include adaptations to waterlogged soil, coping with salt, the cost of survival, inorganic nutrients, reproductive ... More


Zooplankton and zoobenthos in high-latitude water bodies

Milla Rautio, Ian A.E. Bayly, John A.E. Gibson, and Marjut Nyman

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

The biodiversity of zooplankton and zoobenthos decreases towards high latitudes, though the two poles have different species compositions despite environmental similarities in temperature, habitat ... More


Fish in high-latitude Arctic lakes

Michael Power, James D. Reist, and J. Brian Dempson

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

There is a limited freshwater fish fauna in the high Arctic, with Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) dominating in most aquatic systems. In the high Arctic, Arctic char are the only resident freshwater ... More


Stress, adaptation, and survival in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter deals with the effects of polar conditions on living systems in general, the ways in which microorganisms, plants, and animals are able to adapt to the stresses imposed, and how they ... More


Asking the right question

Marian Stamp Dawkins

in Observing Animal Behaviour: design and analysis of quantitative data

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198569350
eISBN:
9780191717512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569350.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Fundamental to the success of any research project is asking the right question in the first place. In this chapter, Tinbergen's four questions about adaptation, causation, development, and evolution ... More


Simple selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The action of selection is based on a few simple principles that are general to all self-replicating systems, and which constitute a distinct branch of science. This introductory chapter presents a ... More


Natural selection in closed asexual populations

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The mechanism of evolutionary change can be studied directly through selection experiments in laboratory microcosms. This chapter begins by describing the experimental approach to evolution, and goes ... More


Adaptive radiation: diversity and specialization

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Selection in complex and structured environments is likely to cause the divergence of differently adapted lines. This will lead to a diverse array of specialized types, or to one or a few broad ... More


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