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## Later Alexandrian Developments

*Victor J. Katz and Karen Hunger Parshall*

### in Taming the Unknown: A History of Algebra from Antiquity to the Early Twentieth Century

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691149059
- eISBN:
- 9781400850525
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691149059.003.0004
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter traces the development of mathematics in the vibrant research and cultural complex that began to coalesce around the Museum and Library in Alexandria around 300 BCE. This distinguished ... More

## Refuting Origins

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0008
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the debate among experts over the origins of the Hindu-Arabic numerals. One such expert was the French mathematician and historian Michel Chasles, who argued that by the fifth ... More

## Sans Symbols

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0009
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the importance of symbols to the development of mathematics. It begins by analyzing the oldest surviving copy of Euclid's Elements, MS D'Orville 301, which shows how to prove ... More

## Diophantus’s <i>Arithmetica</i>

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0010
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses Diophantus's Arithmetica and its contribution to symbolic modern mathematics. Some historians in the past have suggested that algebra began with Diophantus, whose Arithmetica ... More

## The Ancient Approach

*Glen Van Brummelen*

### in Heavenly Mathematics: The Forgotten Art of Spherical Trigonometry

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691175997
- eISBN:
- 9781400844807
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691175997.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the ancient approach to trigonometry, beginning with Hipparchus of Rhodes, the founder of trigonometry. It reconstructs when and where Hipparchus must have lived by taking into ... More

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