## PRELIMINARIES AND AGREEMENTS

*Rolf Niedermeier*

### in Invitation to Fixed-Parameter Algorithms

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198566076
- eISBN:
- 9780191713910
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566076.003.0002
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Combinatorics / Graph Theory / Discrete Mathematics

This chapter introduces the basic mathematical formalism and discusses concepts used throughout the book. Among other things, it looks at decision problems vs optimization problems, Random Access ... More

## Statistics and Scientific Method: An Introduction for Students and Researchers

*Peter J. Diggle and Amanda G. Chetwynd*

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- December 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199543182
- eISBN:
- 9780191774867
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543182.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

An antidote to technique-oriented service courses, this book studiously avoids the recipe-book style and keeps algebraic details of specific statistical methods to the minimum extent necessary to ... More

## Mathematics in Ancient Egypt: A Contextual History

*Annette Imhausen*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691117133
- eISBN:
- 9781400874309
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691117133.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This book traces the development of Egyptian mathematics, from the end of the fourth millennium BC—and the earliest hints of writing and number notation—to the end of the pharaonic period in ... More

## Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

*Joseph Mazur*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

While all of us regularly use basic mathematical symbols such as those for plus, minus, and equals, few of us know that many of these symbols weren't available before the sixteenth century. What did ... More

## The Good Symbol

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0021
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter argues that a good symbol should tell a whole story, must have an intelligence of its own, and must be a guide to our own intelligence. It begins with a discussion of the symbol π, ... More

## Notation

*Philip Isett*

### in Hölder Continuous Euler Flows in Three Dimensions with Compact Support in Time

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691174822
- eISBN:
- 9781400885428
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691174822.003.0004
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization

This chapter explains the notation for the basic construction of the correction. It employs the Einstein summation convention, according to which there is an implied summation when a pair of indices ... More

## Vowels and Consonants

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0015
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter focuses on the evolution of the vowel–consonant notation. In particular, it discusses François Viète's contribution to algebra through his use of vowels to represent unknowns and ... More

## Notation and syntax

*Chris Sangwin*

### in Computer Aided Assessment of Mathematics

- Published in print:
- 2013
- Published Online:
- December 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199660353
- eISBN:
- 9780191748257
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660353.003.0005
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Educational Mathematics

Mathematical notation has a long and interesting history. It also has a profound influence on the mind. For mathematical computer aided assessment (CAA) students must enter their answer into the ... More

## Curious Beginnings

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter traces the beginnings of mathematical notation. For tens of thousands of years, humans had been leaving signification marks in their surroundings, gouges on trees, footprints in hard ... More

## Diophantus’s <i>Arithmetica</i>

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0010
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses Diophantus's Arithmetica and its contribution to symbolic modern mathematics. Some historians in the past have suggested that algebra began with Diophantus, whose Arithmetica ... More