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Plausible Reasoning

David Hodgson

in Rationality + Consciousness = Free Will

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199845309
eISBN:
9780199932269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199845309.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

In Chapter 3, I consider one very important aspect of our rationality, namely our ability to engage in plausible reasoning; that is, reasoning in which the premises or data do not entail the ... More


The Logic of Scientific Discovery

Colin Howson

in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250371
eISBN:
9780191597749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250371.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Applies the results of Ch. 7 to scientific methodology and shows that they give a logical interpretation of the subjective Bayesian theory of inductive inference. This theory is therefore no more ... More


The Justification of Explanation

Richard Swinburne

in The Existence of God

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199271672
eISBN:
9780191709357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271672.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

An explanatory hypothesis (whether of the personal or scientific kind) is probable in so far as it makes probable the occurrence of many observed phenomena, the occurrence of which is not probable ... More


Decision Technology

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0032
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on decision technology—the rules and tools that help us make wiser decisions. It begins by reviewing the three rules that are at the heart of most traditional decision ... More


 What Doctors Must Know about Medical Practice

Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser

in Bioethics: A systematic approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195159066
eISBN:
9780199786466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195159063.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter shows the importance of recognizing the probabilistic nature of medical diagnosis and treatment. It discusses the possibly serious effects of physicians not understanding Bayes theorem, ... More


The Criteria of Logical Probability

Richard Swinburne

in Epistemic Justification

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199243792
eISBN:
9780191598524
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199243794.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The logical probability of a proposition on another proposition is the true measure of how probable the latter makes the former. The central case of this concerns how likely some evidence makes some ... More


The Balance of Probability

Richard Swinburne

in The Resurrection of God Incarnate

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257461
eISBN:
9780191598616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257469.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Summarizes the argument of the book. Given only a moderate amount of evidence from natural theology in favour of the existence of God and his having reason to become incarnate among humans, there is ... More


Ultimate Explanation and Prior Probability

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Suppose for the sake of argument that theism is a meaningful and coherent theory with predictive power. Then we should wonder how probable it is that theism is true, given the total evidence for and ... More


Bayesians versus Frequentists

Peter Coles

in From Cosmos to Chaos: The Science of Unpredictability

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567622
eISBN:
9780191718250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567622.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

There are two competing interpretations of probability. One is the view that probabilities should be interpreted as frequencies in some large ensemble of repeated experiments under identical ... More


Chance and Probability

Colin Howson

in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250371
eISBN:
9780191597749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250371.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Considers the nature of chance and its role in statistical hypotheses. It is argued that the best way to understand chance is as tendency, naturally measured by the frequency in repeated trials of ... More


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